Topic outline

  • The Demise of the CLAW Hypothesis and the SOLAS Study

  • The Demise of the CLAW Hypothesis and the SOLAS Study

    •  Since Charlson et al. proposed the CLAW hypothesis in 1987, the CLAW hypothesis has attracted a great deal of attention and an enormous amount of research resources have been devoted to it. Thanks to this, atmospheric and oceanic research has made great progress. However, two of Charlson's disciples (Quinn and Bates) put an end to the CLAW hypothesis in 2011 in the same journal Nature, stating that "no evidence was found to prove the CLAW Hypothesis, and it should be buried. The paper is deeply moving because, unusually for an acknowledgment of a scientific journal article, it quotes a passage from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. In addition, they both also give credit to the CLAW hypothesis.

    • Quinn and Bates, Nature (2011) "The case against climate regulation via oceanic phytoplankton sulphur emissions"
      There is a fee to download articles from Nature. Since Hokkaido University has a contract, you can download the article by accessing the site from Hokkaido University.

    • Various research projects have been conducted with the major goal of testing the CLAW hypothesis. As mentioned earlier, none of the research projects have been able to achieve that major goal. We have found that we cannot compete in understanding the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean unless we create an international framework to proceed. Through previous projects, an international framework has been created. That is the Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS). The objective is not to test the CLAW hypothesis. The purpose is to clarify the interaction of the Earth's system, especially the atmosphere and the oceans, and to advance science by recognizing common issues worldwide. Individual researchers and research groups work together internationally via SOLAS to advance atmospheric and oceanic research, while keeping in mind the common challenges of SOLAS.

         The scope of SOLAS (2004)                                Diagram to illustrate SOLAS  (2004)         Five SOLAS Core Themes (2016)

         Figure 1 and Figure 2 of IGBP report 50 (2004), edited by Wendy Broadgate,  (Web:
         Figure 1 of "SOLAS 2015-2025: Science Plan and Organisation. edited by Brévière, E. and the SOLAS Scientific Steering Committee (2016): SOLAS International Project Office, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, 76 pp. )

    • You can download a PDF of the Science plan document from this page.

  • Issue